In the proper age group, there is evidence that total hip arthroplasty (THA) has superior outcomes for the treatment of acetabular fractures compared with open reduction and internal fixation. Studies comparing patient demographics and identifying risk factors for either surgical site infections (SSIs) or periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) compare baseline demographics of patients who did and did not develop infections and (2) identify risk factors associated with developing either SSIs or PJIs.
A retrospective study from 2005 to 2014 was done using a nationwide claims database. The inclusion criteria consisted of patients sustaining an acetabular fracture and treated with THA who developed either SSIs or PJIs within 90 days or 2 years, respectively, whereas patients not developing infections served as control subjects. The final study yielded 13,059 patients within the study (n = 988) and control cohort (n = 12,071). Baseline demographics were compared. A multivariate regression model calculated the odds ratio (OR) associated with development of infections. P value less than 0.002 was considered statistically significant.
The study demonstrated significant differences among the cohorts regarding baseline demographics. The greatest risk factors for SSIs within 90 days were morbid obesity (OR: 1.84, P < 0.0001), pathologic weight loss (OR: 1.64, P < 0.0001), and iron deficiency anemia (OR: 1.59, P = 0.001). An increased risk of PJIs was associated with iron deficiency anemia (OR: 1.97, P < 0.0001), pathologic weight loss (OR: 1.72, P < 0.0001), and morbid obesity (OR: 1.70, P = 0.0001).
This study found notable differences between baseline demographics of the cohorts and a myriad of risk factors associated with developing infections after THA for acetabular fractures. This study provides insight into orthopaedic surgeons and other healthcare professionals on the need of properly educating these high-risk patients of the potential consequences which they may encounter after their procedure.
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