Multilevel surgery for upper extremity spasticity is the current surgical standard. While the literature details surgical techniques and outcomes, a comprehensive guide to surgical planning is lacking. Patients commonly present with posturing into shoulder internal rotation, elbow flexion, forearm pronation, wrist flexion with ulnar deviation, finger flexion, and thumb adduction, although variations exist. Multiple surgical options exist for each segment; therefore, repeated examinations for contracture, pathologic laxity, and out of phase activity are necessary to optimize the surgical plan. To avoid decreasing function, one must carefully balance the benefits of contracture release and tendon transfers with their weakening effects. In certain cases, stability from joint fusion outweighs the loss of motion. Failure to recognize dynamic posturing, grasp and release requirements, or hand intrinsic spasticity can worsen function and cause new deformities. Surgical indications are formulated for individual deformity patterns and severity along with personal/family goals. General comprehension, voluntary control, and sensation, although not modifiable, influence decision making and are prognostic indicators. Functional improvement is unlikely without preexisting voluntary control, but appearance and visual feedback may be improved by repositioning nonetheless. Appropriate interventions and management of expectations will optimize limb appearance and function while avoiding unexpected sequelae.