The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of pseudotumors in metal-on-metal (MoM) titanium modular neck hip arthroplasties to non-MoM modular neck hip arthroplasties. A secondary goal was to determine whether a correlation exists between elevated metal concentrations and pseudotumor incidence.
The data were collected and evaluated from 49 MoM joints and 26 non-MoM joints between the years 2012 and 2017. Hip ultrasonography was done after a minimum of 5 years postimplantation. Whole serum metal (titanium, cobalt, and chromium) concentrations were measured at the hip ultrasonography study.
The average time elapsed between surgery and ultrasonography visit was 7.6 years. In the 49 patients with MoM joints, 22.4% (n = 11) had a pseudotumor. In the 26 patients with non-MoM joints, 9.1% of metal-on-polyethylene hips (n = 1) and 0% of ceramic-on-ceramic/polyethylene hips developed a pseudotumor. No significant statistical correlation was observed between serum metal concentrations and pseudotumor formation (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was observed of serum titanium concentration to pseudotumor size (P = 0.024).
The incidence of pseudotumor formation in MoM total hip arthroplasties was more than five times the incidence associated with non-MoM bearings. The correlation between serum titanium concentration and pseudotumor size suggests that titanium levels may be a useful indicator for pseudotumor formation in patients with this particular titanium modular neck femoral implant. No notable correlation was observed between serum cobalt and chromium concentration and pseudotumor formation or size.