Obesity and diabetes have independently been shown to predispose to adverse outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). These may have a coupled effect on perioperative risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on adverse outcomes in nondiabetic (ND), non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients.
Patients undergoing primary THA were selected from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database from 2012 to 2016 and categorized as ND, NIDDM, and IDDM. BMI, demographics, and 30-day perioperative outcomes were assessed for each group. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for demographics, functional status, and American Society of Anesthesiologists were used to determine the odds ratio of serious adverse event (SAE) in each diabetes group for patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 compared with a control group of ND patients with a normal BMI (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2).
A total of 108,177 patients were included. The results demonstrate that ND (odds ratio 1.65; P < 0.001) and NIDDM (odds ratio 1.75; P = 0.007) patients have similar risks of SAE, whereas IDDM (odds ratio 2.79; P < 0.001) patients have a greater risk of adverse events, particularly at BMIs greater than 40 kg/m2.
Consistent with previous reports, ND (odds ratio 1.65; P < 0.001) and NIDDM (odds ratio 1.75; P = 0.007) morbidly obese patients (BMI > 40 kg/m2) had an increased odds of SAEs after THA, but for IDDM (odds ratio 2.79; P < 0.001) patients this increased odds was notably higher. Although patients with IDDM have increased rates of adverse events compared with ND and NIDDM patients, these findings should not be used to establish strict BMI cutoffs in patients with IDDM. Nonetheless, the results suggest additional factors, such as patient medical history and diabetes control, should be considered when evaluating patients with IDDM for THA.
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