The Sunshine Act aims to increase the transparency of physicians receiving compensation from pharmaceutical and medical device companies. Nine states have supplementary legislation in addition to the Federal Sunshine Act. The purpose of this study is to assess the characteristics of financial compensation to orthopaedic residents on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Open Payments Database in states with more restrictive regulations compared with those without additional restrictions.
A complete list of accredited orthopaedic residency programs in the United States was compiled using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and American Osteopathic Academy of Orthopedics websites. The website of each orthopaedic residency program was searched to compile a list of residents who attended their program from 2014 to 2016. The CMS Open Payments Database was used to search the residents identified for the corresponding years. All data available on the CMS Open Payments Database were recorded.
Over the 3-year period, 3,622 residents were identified from 151 programs. A total of 41% of the residents were reported as receiving compensation from the industry. The percent of residents reported from programs in less restrictive states was 45% versus 28% in more restrictive states (P < 0.001). Residents had a mean of 5.3 transactions per year in less restrictive states and 2.4 transactions per year in more restrictive states (P < 0.001). The mean compensation per resident reported was $2,730 for less restrictive sates versus $1,937 for more restrictive states (P < 0.001).
Overall, 41% of orthopaedic residents were reported on the CMS Open Payments Database with fewer transactions and less compensation going to residents in states with more restrictive legislature. Potential implications on resident education remain unknown.