Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common complications after surgeries involving musculoskeletal tumors, but we know little about SSI risk factors unique to orthopaedic oncology. A greater understanding of these factors will help risk-stratify patients and guide surgical decision-making.
A retrospective review at a single-institution identified 757 procedures done on 624 over 6 years. The patients had a preoperative diagnosis of a malignant or potentially malignant neoplasm of the bone or soft tissues. Patient-specific and procedure-specific variables and diagnosis of SSI were recorded for each case. Data were analyzed through univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression.
On univariate analysis, significant patient-specific risk factors for SSI included malignancy (P < 0.001), smoking history (P = 0.041), and American Society of Anesthesiologists Score (P = 0.002). Significant procedure-specific risk factors for SSI on univariate analysis included surgery time (P < 0.001), estimated blood loss (P < 0.001), blood transfusion volume (P < 0.001), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P < 0.001), neoadjuvant radiation therapy (P < 0.001), inpatient surgery (P < 0.001), and number of previous surgeries within the study period (P < 0.001). The two factors that independently predicted risk of SSI when controlling for all other variables in a multiple logistic regression were whether the surgery was done on an inpatient basis (P = 0.005) and the number of previous surgeries done on the same site (P = 0.001).
We found a number of risk factors that correlate markedly with SSI after orthopaedic oncology surgery. The surgeon can use these risk factors to aid in surgical decision-making.