Peak performance is the ability to achieve optimal outcomes or performance of a given task in a consistent manner. Commonly studied in athletes and musicians, this topic is less often studied in medicine and rarely broached for trainees. However, residency is a crucial period of training where foundations for future success are sewn into habit and daily practice. As educators, we should aim to equip trainees with the tools necessary to achieve peak performance. Studies in athletes and musicians focus on achieving peak performance by setting goals, mastering skills through deliberate practice, perseverance, grit, and discipline. Mentorship is also an important element to streamline efforts for the trainee and help them to focus. In the following article, we review the current literature on applying these principles to surgical trainees to achieve peak performance.