Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis represents a complex, three-dimensional deformity of the spine. Posterior spinal fusion is commonly performed in severe cases to avoid the long-term adverse sequelae associated with progressive spinal deformity. The goals of spinal fusion include halting the progression of deformity, optimizing spinal balance, and minimizing complications. Recent advances in short-segment spinal fixation have allowed for improved three-dimensional deformity correction. Preoperative planning and assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for successful deformity correction and optimization of long-term outcomes. Judicious use of releases and/or spinal osteotomies may allow for increased mobility of the spine but are associated with increased surgical time, blood loss, and risk of complications. Appreciation of implant design and material properties is critical for safe application of correction techniques. Although multiple reduction techniques have been described, no single technique is optimal for every patient.