Review ArticleThe Role of the Orthopaedic Surgeon in the Identification and Management of Nonaccidental TraumaRanade, Sheena C. MD; Allen, Abigail K. MD; Deutsch, Stephanie A. MDAuthor Information From the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY (Dr. Ranade and Dr. Allen), and the Department of Pediatrics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University (Dr. Deutsch). None of the following authors or any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article: Dr. Ranade, Dr. Allen, and Dr. Deutsch. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: January 15, 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 2 - p 53-65 doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00348 Metrics Abstract Nonaccidental trauma (NAT) has short- and long-term effects on the patient. The importance of identification and management of injuries related to NAT can be vital to the disruption of patterns of abuse and can ultimately save lives. The purpose of this review is to educate the orthopaedic surgeon as the frontline provider in the treatment of these patients. Understanding the risk factors for abuse, sentinel signs on clinical examination, and questionable fracture patterns related to NAT enables providers to better identify and address children at risk of abuse or neglect. Equally as important, understanding pathologic states that can mimic NAT allows the orthopaedic surgeon the tools necessary to address all patients with multiple and/or unexplained fractures. Understanding the legal expectations and protections for practicing orthopaedic surgeons as mandated reporters and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to intervention in these settings will improve patient experiences and outcomes. Copyright 2019 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.