Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology is affecting how orthopaedic surgeries are planned and executed. Like many innovations, 3-D printers are becoming smaller, more affordable, and more accessible. Free access to open-source 3-D imaging software has also made clinical implementation of this technology widely feasible. Within the last decade, 3-D printing advancements have improved the way orthopaedic surgeons can approach both common and complex cases. Advanced imaging studies can be used to create musculoskeletal models, which can then be used to create custom orthopaedic guides and instruments. Similarly, 3-D printing is being applied to improve the field of biologic therapies in orthopaedics. Application of 3-D printing technology has been associated with important improvements in education, preoperative planning, surgical care, and patient-specific devices and treatments. Improvements in cost-effectiveness, access, and usability of 3-D printing technology have made it possible for orthopaedic surgeons to use this powerful tool using desktop 3-D printers in their clinic or office. The types of printers and materials available to print are constantly expanding, but many of the basic 3-D printing principles persist throughout these advances in the field. A clear understanding of this technology is important to the clinical implementation of 3-D printing for current and future practice of orthopaedic care.