Review ArticleDiagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis: What Orthopaedic Surgeons Need to KnowMatzkin, Elizabeth G. MD; DeMaio, Marlene MD; Charles, Julia F. MD, PhD; Franklin, Corinna C. MDAuthor Information From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (Dr. Matzkin), the Department of Orthopaedics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (DeMaio), the Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (Charles), and the Department of Orthopaedics, Shriners Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA (Franklin). None of the following authors or any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article: Dr. Matzkin, Dr. DeMaio, Dr. Charles, and Dr. Franklin. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: October 15, 2019 - Volume 27 - Issue 20 - p e902-e912 doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00600 CME Test Metrics Abstract Osteoporosis, often called a silent disease, is a systemic condition of bone as a result of loss of bone mass and deterioration of its microarchitecture. The result is weakened bone, leading to an increased risk of fragility fractures. An estimated 9 million osteoporotic fractures occur every year worldwide. However, the true incidence of osteoporotic fractures is unknown because many are undetected. Astoundingly, this epidemic equates to an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds. Orthopaedic surgeons need to not only treat these fractures but also understand the underlying pathogenesis and risk factors to help prevent them. The management of osteoporosis is a critical part of musculoskeletal care. We must be familiar with the tools to assess osteoporosis and the treatments available, including risks and benefits. This review article is intended to deliver a review of the vast literature and provide the orthopaedic surgeon with the essential information necessary to manage the current osteoporosis epidemic. Copyright 2019 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.