Extra-articular deformities of the femur and tibia in conjunction with advanced knee osteoarthritis pose unique challenges for the arthroplasty surgeon. Careful preoperative planning is needed to evaluate both the intra- and extra-articular deformities and to determine the best route to total knee arthroplasty. An intra-articular compensatory correction can typically be performed if the extra-articular deformity is distant from the joint or if preoperative templating shows that bony cuts do not interfere with ligamentous attachments. Staged osteotomy followed by arthroplasty is beneficial in severe cases in which bony cuts are excessive or would interfere with soft-tissue structures and in cases with leg-length discrepancy. Osteotomies can be performed percutaneously and fixed with intramedullary nails, external fixators, or plate and screw constructs. Ligamentous laxity after correction and risk of peroneal nerve injury are increased in extra-articular deformity cases and must be considered during the knee arthroplasty procedure with increased implant constraint and patient counseling, respectively. Computer-assisted navigation has an emerging role in total knee arthroplasty in patients with extra-articular deformity.
From the Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service (Dr. Sculco), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Dr. Kahlenberg), and Limb Lengthening and Complex Reconstruction Service (Dr. Fragomen and Dr. Rozbruch), Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.
Dr. Sculco or an immediate family member has received research support from Intellijoint. Dr. Fragomen or an immediate family member is a member of a speakers' bureau or has made paid presentations on behalf of NuVasive, Smith & Nephew, and Synthes; serves as a paid consultant to Globus Medical, NuVasive, Smith & Nephew, and Synthes; and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the Limb Lengthening Research Society. Dr. Rozbruch or an immediate family member has received IP royalties from Stryker; is a member of a speakers' bureau or has made paid presentations on behalf of NuVasive, Smith & Nephew, and Stryker; serves as a paid consultant to NuVasive and Stryker; and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society. Neither Dr. Kahlenberg nor any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.