Poor functional outcomes and aseptic loosening increase when total knee arthroplasty is performed on osteoporotic patients. This biomechanical study evaluated the effect of stem extension on the stability of tibial fixation using different cementing techniques.
A standard design tibial tray was implanted in a replica of a male osteoporotic tibia. Twenty-four implantations were performed using three variations of implant and cementing, and then mounted on a material testing machine load frame at 500 cycles of multiaxial loading simulating walking. The three-dimensional components of tray-tibia micromotion were measured.
The primary implant total interface motion with surface cementing was 25.9 μm ± 14.7 μm and 10.6 μm ± 7.6 μm with full cementing (P = 0.001). The three-dimensional motion of fully cemented primary implants with stem extension was 4.4 μm ± 3.9 μm, which represents a decrease in micromotion of 83% in surface cemented primary implants (P < 0.0001) and 58% in the fully cemented components without stem extension (P < 0.009).
Fully cemented primary implants with stem extensions demonstrated decreased micromotion and should be considered for use in osteoporotic total knee arthroplasty patients.