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Sex-based Differences in Common Sports Injuries

Carter, Cordelia W., MD; Ireland, Mary Lloyd, MD; Johnson, Anthony E., MD; Levine, William N., MD; Martin, Scott, MD; Bedi, Asheesh, MD; Matzkin, Elizabeth G., MD

JAAOS - Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: July 1, 2018 - Volume 26 - Issue 13 - p 447–454
doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00607
Review Article

The patient's sex plays an important role in mediating the risk for, and experience of, disease. Injuries of the musculoskeletal system are no exception to this phenomenon. Increasing evidence shows that the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes for male and female patients with common sports injuries may vary widely. Stress fracture, which is associated with the female athlete triad, is a sports injury with known sex-based differences. Other common sports-related injuries may also have distinct sex-based differences. Understanding these differences is important to optimize each patient's musculoskeletal care.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT (Dr. Carter), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (Dr. Ireland), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (Dr. Johnson), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY (Dr. Levine), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (Dr. Martin), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (Dr. Bedi), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (Dr. Matzkin).

Dr. Carter or an immediate family member serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America. Dr. Ireland or an immediate family member serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and the Ruth Jackson Orthopaedic Society. Dr. Johnson or an immediate family member serves as a paid consultant to or is an employee of the Orthopaedic Devices Panel and the US Food & Drug Administration; has stock or stock options held in Pfizer; has received research or institutional support from Bergstrom Pharmaceuticals and Flexion Therapeutics; and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons. Dr. Levine or an immediate family member serves as an unpaid consultant to Zimmer and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the American Orthopaedic Association. Dr. Bedi or an immediate family member serves as a paid consultant to or is an employee of Arthrex and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Dr. Matzkin or an immediate family member has received research or institutional support from Zimmer. Neither Dr. Martin nor any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.

© 2018 by American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
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