Review ArticlePolydactyly of the HandComer, Garet C. MD; Potter, Michael MD; Ladd, Amy L. MD Author Information From the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, CA (Dr. Comer), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sentara Martha Jefferson Healthcare, Charlottesville, VA (Dr. Potter), and the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood, CA (Dr. Ladd). Dr. Ladd or an immediate family member has received royalties from Extremity Medical and Orthohelix Surgical Designs; serves as a paid consultant to Pacira Pharmaceuticals; has stock or stock options held in Articulinx, Extremity Medical, and IlluminOss Medical; has received research or institutional support from the National Institutes of Health (NIAMS & NICHD); and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the Ruth Jackson Orthopaedic Society. Neither of the following authors nor any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article: Dr. Comer and Dr. Potter. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: February 1, 2018 - Volume 26 - Issue 3 - p 75-82 doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00139 Metrics Abstract Polydactyly is one of the most common congenital hand deformities managed by orthopaedic surgeons. It is most often found in isolation; however, rarely, it may be associated with genetic syndromes. Polydactyly is classified as postaxial, preaxial, or central depending on the radioulnar location of the duplicated digits. Postaxial polydactyly, which affects the ulnar side of the hand, is most common and is typically managed with excision or suture ligation of the supernumerary digit. Preaxial polydactyly, which affects the thumb or radial side of the hand, often requires reconstructive techniques to ensure a functional, stable thumb. Central polydactyly is much less common, and reconstruction can be challenging. Copyright 2018 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.