The scapula plays a key role in nearly every aspect of normal shoulder function. Scapular dyskinesis—altered scapular positioning and motion—is found in association with most shoulder injuries. Basic science and clinical research findings have led to the identification of normal three-dimensional scapular kinematics in scapulohumeral rhythm and to abnormal kinematics in shoulder injury, the development of clinical methods of evaluating the scapula (eg, scapular assistance test, scapular retraction test), and the formulation of rehabilitation guidelines. Primary scapular presentations such as scapular winging and snapping should be managed with a protocol that is focused on the scapula. Persons with associated conditions such as shoulder impingement, rotator cuff disease, labral injury, clavicle fracture, acromioclavicular joint injury, and multidirectional instability should be evaluated for scapular dyskinesis and treated accordingly.
From The Shoulder Center of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
Dr. Kibler or an immediate family member serves as an unpaid consultant to and has stock or stock options held in Alignmed and serves as a board member, owner, officer, or committee member of the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery, and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Dr. Wilkes or an immediate family member is a member of a speakers’ bureau or has made paid presentations on behalf of Arthrex. Neither Mr. Sciascia nor any immediate family member has received anything of value from or owns stock in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2012;20: 364–372
Copyright 2012 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.