Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

A Review of Problem Solving and Reflection as Caregiver Coaching Strategies in Early Intervention

Lorio, Ciera M. PhD, CCC-SLP; Romano, Mollie PhD, CCC-SLP; Woods, Juliann J. PhD, CCC-SLP; Brown, Jennifer PhD, CCC-SLP

doi: 10.1097/IYC.0000000000000156
Original Research/Study

An increasing number of researchers are examining the benefits and outcomes of caregiver-implemented interventions for young children with delays or disabilities. Most report the incorporation of multiple coaching strategies within their approach; however, definitions and descriptions of coaching strategies and processes continue to be limited. This scoping review examined the use of various coaching strategies across models of caregiver coaching in early intervention, with a specific focus on problem solving and reflection coaching strategies occurring in the literature between 2011 and 2018. Problem solving and reflection are 2 coaching strategies incorporated into coaching approaches to build caregiver competency, confidence, and independence within intervention implementation. The results of this review may guide the field in further defining caregiver coaching as well as specific coaching strategies, such as problem solving and reflection.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Illinois State University, Normal (Dr Lorio); School of Communication Science and Disorders, Florida State University, Tallahassee (Drs Romano, and Woods); and Department of Communication Sciences and Special Education, University of Georgia, Athens (Dr Brown).

Correspondence: Ciera M. Lorio, PhD, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4720, Normal, IL 61790 (

This article was presented at the 2018 annual conference for the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) in Orlando, Florida.

Ciera M. Lorio's work on this project was directly supported by the US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs—TRAIL: Training in Research Autism and Interdisciplinary Leadership grant (H325D120062), Juliann J. Woods, PI. Funding for the Embedded Practices and Intervention with Caregivers (EPIC) project (R324A130121), Juliann Woods, PI, was by the Institute of Education Sciences. All authors receive salaries from their respective universities. No other conflicts of interest were declared.

Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved