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Examining the Technical Adequacy of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires


Clifford, Jantina, PhD; Chen, Ching-I, PhD; Xie, Huichao, PhD; Chen, Chieh-Yu, PhD; Murphy, Kimberly; Ascetta, Kate, PhD; Frantz, Rebecca, MA; Hansen, Sarah, PhD

doi: 10.1097/IYC.0000000000000124
Original Research/Study

Although many children live in healthy, supportive environments, far too many are exposed to or experience biological and/or psychosocial risk factors (e.g., infectious diseases, maternal depression). To evaluate the effectiveness of early childhood programs that are established to support these vulnerable children, funding agencies and nongovernmental organizations are increasing their focus on the development and implementation of interventions aimed at supporting the development of infants and toddlers and need a means for evaluating the effectiveness of the programs. However, there is a lack of psychometrically sound, easy-to-administer, change-sensitive measurement tools to assess the developmental outcomes of children from birth to 3 years. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires: INVENTORY (ASQ:I) is a new measure that was designed to meet this need. The ASQ:I is a continuous measure that was developed by combining items from the Ages & Stages Questionnaires. The ASQ:I is intended to be used for evaluating and monitoring the development of children from 1 to 36 months of age using naturalistic methods that incorporate and capitalize on parent participation. This study presents preliminary evidence for the technical adequacy of the ASQ:I.

Early Intervention Program, Department of Special Education and Clinical Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene (Dr Clifford and Mss Murphy and Frantz); Special Education Program, School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (Dr C-I. Chen); National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Dr Xie); Department of Special Education, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan (Dr C.Y. Chen); Department of Education Studies, University of South Carolina, Columbia (Dr Ascetta); and Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education, and Communication Disorders, Georgia State University, Atlanta (Dr Hansen).

Correspondence: Jantina Clifford, PhD, Department of Special Education and Clinical Sciences, University of Oregon, 901 E. 18th St, Eugene, OR 97403 (

This work was supported by a grant from the Open Society Foundations, Budapest Hungary (grant number OR2013-09339).

Jantina Clifford is a coauthor of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires–Third Edition and receives consulting fees and royalties from the publisher. In addition, Jantina Clifford and Kimberly Murphy may receive future consulting fees and royalties from future publication of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: INVENTORY if commercially published. No conflicts of interest are declared for the remaining authors.

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