Original Research/StudyEvaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in MozambiqueSkar, Ane-Marthe Solheim MSc; Sherr, Lorraine PhD; Clucas, Claudine PhD; von Tetzchner, Stephen PhD Author Information Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway (Ms Skar and Dr von Tetzchner), and Infection & Population Health, University College London, England (Drs Sherr and Clucas). Ms Clucas is now at the University of Chester, Cheshire, England. Correspondence: Ane-Marthe Solheim Skar, MSc, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Postboks 1094 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway ([email protected]). The authors thank the parents who participated in the study. They also thank the Maputo ICDP team members for their assistance in the data collection: Miguel (project officer), Carla, David, Eúgenia, Hilário, Pércida, Silvia, and Zacarias and acknowledge the local team “Associação para o Desenvolvimento Social da Criança” (ADSC): Meriamo (group leader), Anita, Carlos, Geraldo, Hamilton, Helder, Járcia, and Nércia; and Santana Momade and Pedro Mendes for their support and hospitality during the field visit. They also wish to acknowledge Pedro for arranging the logistics. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Infants & Young Children: April/June 2014 - Volume 27 - Issue 2 - p 120-135 doi: 10.1097/IYC.0000000000000006 Buy Metrics Abstract Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare caregivers who had completed an ICDP course (n = 75) with a sociogeographically matched comparison group (n = 62) who had not followed any parenting program. Both groups completed a questionnaire about parenting, attitudes toward the child and the child's behavior, self-efficacy, life quality, and mental health. The ICDP group reported better parenting skills, fewer conduct problems in their children, and better child adjustment than the comparison group, as well as a shift in physical punishment away from hitting. The ICDP group had higher self-efficacy scores, better health and life quality, and lower scores on mental health difficulties. The follow-up differences between caregivers who had and had not attended the ICDP course indicate that course attendance may result in observable benefits in parenting and mental health scores. The data are cross-sectional and the caregivers were interviewed postintervention only, and more research is therefore needed. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.