Original StudyEarly Childhood Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education in Turkey Within the Scope of the Developmental System ApproachDiken, Ibrahim H. PhD; Bayhan, Pinar PhD; Turan, Figen PhD; Sipal, R. Firat PhD; Sucuoglu, Bulbin PhD; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice PhD; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem PhD; Kara, Ozgun Kaya MSAuthor Information Department of Special Education, Faculty of Education, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Dr Diken); Departments of Child Development (Drs Bayhan, Turan, and Sipal) and Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation (Drs Gunel and Kara), and Department of Special Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Ankara University (Drs Sucuoğlu and Ceber-Bakkaloğlu), Ankara, Turkey. Correspondence: Ibrahim H. Diken, PhD, Department of Special Education, Faculty of Education, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey (email@example.com). The authors declare no conflict of interest. Infants & Young Children: October/December 2012 - Volume 25 - Issue 4 - p 346-353 doi: 10.1097/IYC.0b013e318268541d Buy Metrics Abstract The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to ECI/ECSE in Turkey, the article focuses on ECI/ECSE practices in Turkey. Although ECI/ECSE legislative acts have been in place since 1980s, there are critical issues regarding the provision of systematic ECI/ECSE both to young children with developmental delays or at risk for developmental delays and to their families. These issues include lack of a model system approach, lack of assessment tools and curricula, and lack of qualified personnel. Future recommendations for ECI/ECSE are provided. ©2012Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.