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Predictors of Developmental Outcomes of High-Risk and Developmentally Delayed Infants and Children Enrolled in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

Giannoni, Peggy P. PhD; Kass, Philip H. DVM, PhD

doi: 10.1097/IYC.0b013e318257ff83
Original Study

A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify child, maternal, family, and community factors associated with rate of developmental disability among children enrolled in the California Early Start Program. The cohort included 8,987 children considered at high risk for developmental disability due to medical risks and/or developmental delay. Analyses examined risk factors within a system hierarchy; levels included child's condition and qualifying risk factors, maternal characteristics, family qualities, and risk scores for residential county. Each level had factors predictive of developmental disability. Age at entry into the Early Start Program was the strongest determinant of outcome. Age at entry interacting with gender and developmental delays in physical, communication, and social/emotional developmental areas were strongly related to a shorter time to disability.

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis.

Correspondence: Philip H. Kass, DVM, PhD, Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (

The authors acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Drs Rahman Azari and Robin Hansen in guiding the late Dr Giannoni during her PhD dissertation work.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

©2012Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.