Original ArticleBreastfeeding and Neurodevelopment A Literature ReviewPetryk, Andrea MSc, OT(C); Harris, Susan R. PhD, PT; Jongbloed, Lynette PhD, OT(C)Author Information School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Corresponding author: Susan R. Harris, PhD, PT, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, T325-2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2B5 (e-mail: [email protected]). This literature review was funded in part by a grant from the British Columbia Ministry for Children and Family Development via the Human Early Learning Project (HELP). Infants & Young Children: April 2007 - Volume 20 - Issue 2 - p 120-134 doi: 10.1097/01.IYC.0000264480.27947.16 Buy Metrics Abstract Breastfeeding is thought to be associated with better neurologic outcomes in a person from infancy to adulthood. This article reviews the existing research on breastfeeding and neurodevelopment in areas of neuromotor development, visual development, cognitive development, educational achievement, and social adaptation, with an emphasis on cognitive development. Existing theories (biochemical, behavioral, and genetic) used to explain the effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopment are explained including the supporting research. The methodology of published studies is critiqued in the areas of classification of infant feeding, definition of outcomes, study design and statistical analysis, control of confounding variables, and interpretation of results. Taking a historical perspective, the aim of this review is to inform readers on past and current research and its applicability to the current perspective on the benefits of breastfeeding. ©2007Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.