Original ArticleTourette Syndrome in Infancy and Early ChildhoodZinner, Samuel H. MDAuthor Information From the Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Center on Human Development and Disability, Seattle, Wash. Corresponding author: Samuel H. Zinner, MD, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Center on Human Development and Disability, Box 357920, Seattle, WA 98195 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). The author thanks the Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc; Tanya Murphy, MD; Cheston M. Berlin, Jr, MD; Walter W. Mason, JD; and 3 anonymous reviewers. Infants & Young Children: October-December 2006 - Volume 19 - Issue 4 - p 353-370 Buy Abstract Although it is the presence of motor and phonic tics that defines Tourette syndrome (TS), explorations over the past two decades have uncovered a complex and multidimensional nature of this genetic-based neurological disorder. Tics customarily first become apparent during the latter half of the first decade of life, although they may occur earlier, including during infancy. However, associated “comorbid” conditions, rather than tics, usually determine the functional and qualitative experiences for the child with TS. These conditions often become problematic prior to tic onset. Misconceptions regarding the nature of tics and the varied associated conditions are common, placing children with TS at significant risk for underdiagnosis, mismanagement, and missed opportunities for prevention. This article will consider risk factors and associated behaviors, both subtle and more obvious, that can alert the clinician to infants and young children with tics or who are at increased risk to develop TS. Themes in management strategies include interdisciplinary participation, “Medical Home” foundation, and ongoing monitoring and support. ©2006Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.