Mn-PyC3A is an experimental manganese (Mn)-based extracellular fluid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent that is being evaluated as a direct replacement for clinical gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. The goals of this study were to use simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET)–MRI to (1) compare the whole-body pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and elimination of Mn-PyC3A with the liver-specific contrast agent mangafodipir (Mn-DPDP), (2) determine the pharmacokinetics and fractional excretion of Mn-PyC3A in a rat model of renal impairment, and (3) compare whole-body elimination of Mn-PyC3A to gadoterate (Gd-DOTA) in a rat model of renal impairment.
Mn-PyC3A and Mn-DPDP were radiolabeled with the positron emitting isotope Mn-52 via Mn2+ exchange with 52MnCl2. Dynamic simultaneous PET-MRI was used to measure whole-body pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Mn-52 immediately and out to 7 days after an intravenous 0.2 mmol/kg dose of [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A to normal or to 5/6 nephrectomy rats or a 0.01 mmol/kg dose of [52Mn]Mn-DPDP to normal rats. The fractional excretion and 1- and 7-day biodistribution in rats after the injection of 2.0 mmol/kg [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A (n = 11 per time point) or 2.0 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA (n = 8 per time point) were quantified by gamma counting or Gd elemental analysis, respectively. Comparisons of Mn-PyC3A pharmacokinetics and in vivo biodistribution in normal and 5/6 nephrectomy rats and comparisons of ex vivo Mn versus Gd biodistribution data in 5/6 nephrectomy were made with an unpaired t test.
Dynamic PET-MRI data demonstrate that both [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A and [52Mn]Mn-DPDP were eliminated by mixed renal and hepatobiliary elimination but that a greater fraction of [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A was eliminated by renal filtration. Whole-body PET images show that Mn-52 from [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A was efficiently eliminated from the body, whereas Mn-52 from [52Mn]Mn-DPDP was retained throughout the body. The blood elimination half-life of [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A in normal and 5/6 nephrectomy rats was 13 ± 3.5 minutes and 23 ± 12 minutes, respectively (P = 0.083). Area under the curve between 0 and 60 minutes postinjection (AUC0–60) in the bladder of normal and 5/6 nephrectomy rats was 2600 ± 1700 %ID/cc*min and 750 ± 180 %ID/cc*min, respectively (P = 0.024), whereas AUC0–60 in the liver of normal and 5/6 nephrectomy rats was 33 ± 13 %ID/cc*min and 71 ± 16 %ID/cc*min, respectively (P = 0.011), indicating increased hepatobiliary elimination in 5/6 nephrectomy rats. The %IDs of Mn from [52Mn]Mn-PyC3A and Gd from Gd-DOTA recovered from 5/6 nephrectomy rats 1 day after injection were 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.3 ± 0.34, respectively (P = 0.10) and 7 days after injection were 0.14 ± 0.11 and 0.41 ± 0.24, respectively (P = 0.0041).
Mn-PyC3A has different pharmacokinetics and is more efficiently eliminated than Mn-DPDP in normal rats. Mn-PyC3A is efficiently eliminated from both normal and 5/6 nephrectomy rats, with increased fractional hepatobiliary excretion from 5/6 nephrectomy rats. Mn-PyC3A is more completely eliminated than Gd-DOTA from 5/6 nephrectomy rats after 7 days.