Magnetic resonance imaging guidance has been sporadically reported for renal tumor cryoablation (CA); therefore, clinical experience with this modality is still limited.
The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze our 10-year experience with renal tumor CA performed on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging unit with the intent of reporting procedural safety and oncologic outcomes.
Materials and Methods
We included 143 patients (102 men; 41 women; median age, 73 years; range, 34–91 years) with 149 tumors (median size, 2.6 cm; range, 0.6–6.0 cm), treated between 2009 and 2019. Patient, tumor, procedure, and follow-up data were collected and analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate local recurrence–free (LRFS), metastasis-free (MFS), disease-free (DFS), cancer-specific, and overall (OS) survival. Univariate and multivariate models were used to identify factors associated with complications, LRFS, MFS, DFS, and OS.
The overall complication rate was 10.7% (16/149 tumors), with 1 major (1/149 [0.7%]; 95% confidence interval, 0.0%–3.7%) hemorrhagic complication. Other minor complications (15/149 [10.1%]; 95% confidence interval, 0.6%–16.1%) did not include any cases of injury to nearby organs. There were no factors associated with complications.
Five-year estimates of LRFS (primary/secondary), MFS, DFS, cancer-specific survival, and OS were 82.8%/91.5%, 91.1%, 75.1%, 98.2%, and 89.6%, respectively. Increasing tumor size (hazard radio [HR], 1.8; P = 0.02) and intraparenchymal tumor location (HR, 5.6; P < 0.01) were associated with lower LRFS; increasing patient's age (HR, 0.5; P = 0.01), high tumor grade (HR, 23.3; P < 0.01) and non–clear-cell/nonpapillary histology (HR, 20.1; P < 0.01) with metastatic disease; and high tumor grade (HR, 3.2; P = 0.04) with lower DFS.
Magnetic resonance imaging–guided CA of renal tumors is associated with acceptable morbidity and high survival estimates at 5-year follow-up. Given the absence of complications resulting from injuries to nearby organs, further studies are required to evaluate whether the potential reduced incidence of these adverse events justifies large-scale implementation of this interventional modality.