The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 2 approved computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for detection of pulmonary solid nodules (PSNs) in an oncologic cohort. The first CAD system is based on a conventional machine learning approach (VD10F), and the other is based on a deep 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) CAD software (VD20A).
Methods and Materials
Nine hundred sixty-seven patients with a total of 2451 PSNs were retrospectively evaluated using the 2 different CAD systems. All patients had thin-slice chest computed tomography (0.6 mm) using 100 kV and 100 mAs and a high-resolution kernel (I50f). The CAD images generated by VD10F were transferred to the PACS for evaluation. The images generated by VD20A were evaluated using a Web browser–based viewer. Finally, a senior radiologist who was blinded for the CAD results examined the thin-slice images of every patient (ground truth).
A total of 2451 PSNs were detected by the senior radiologist. CAD-VD10F detected 1401 true-positive, 143 false-negative, 565 false-positive (FP), and 342 true-negative PSNs, resulting in sensitivity of 90.7%, specificity of 37.7%, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.70. CAD-VD20A detected 1381 true-positive, 163 false-negative, 337 FP, and 570 true-negative PSNs, resulting in sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of 62.8%, positive predictive value of 0.80, and negative predictive value 0.77, respectively. The rate of FP per scan was 0.6 for CAD-VD10F and 0.3 for CAD-VD20A.
The new deep learning–based CAD software (VD20A) shows similar sensitivity with the conventional CAD software (VD10F), but a significantly higher specificity.