The aim of this study was to test whether texture analysis and machine learning enable the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) on non–contrast-enhanced low radiation dose cardiac computed tomography (CCT) images.
Materials and Methods
In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we included non–contrast-enhanced electrocardiography-gated low radiation dose CCT image data (effective dose, 0.5 mSv) acquired for the purpose of calcium scoring of 27 patients with acute MI (9 female patients; mean age, 60 ± 12 years), 30 patients with chronic MI (8 female patients; mean age, 68 ± 13 years), and in 30 subjects (9 female patients; mean age, 44 ± 6 years) without cardiac abnormality, hereafter termed controls. Texture analysis of the left ventricle was performed using free-hand regions of interest, and texture features were classified twice (Model I: controls versus acute MI versus chronic MI; Model II: controls versus acute and chronic MI). For both classifications, 6 commonly used machine learning classifiers were used: decision tree C4.5 (J48), k-nearest neighbors, locally weighted learning, RandomForest, sequential minimal optimization, and an artificial neural network employing deep learning. In addition, 2 blinded, independent readers visually assessed noncontrast CCT images for the presence or absence of MI.
In Model I, best classification results were obtained using the k-nearest neighbors classifier (sensitivity, 69%; specificity, 85%; false-positive rate, 0.15). In Model II, the best classification results were found with the locally weighted learning classification (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 81%; false-positive rate, 0.19) with an area under the curve from receiver operating characteristics analysis of 0.78. In comparison, both readers were not able to identify MI in any of the noncontrast, low radiation dose CCT images.
This study indicates the ability of texture analysis and machine learning in detecting MI on noncontrast low radiation dose CCT images being not visible for the radiologists' eye.