This article reviews recent and ongoing developments in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. Advances in T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and spectroscopic imaging are described along with advances related to radiofrequency coils and imaging at high magnetic field. As mpMRI is increasingly becoming routine in various aspects of clinical prostate cancer management, its role in detection, localization, staging, assessment of aggressiveness, and active surveillance is discussed. Combined with growing clinical adoption of the techniques already at hand, continual optimization of acquisition techniques and image interpretation schemes will further strengthen the role of mpMRI as an important diagnostic test in prostate cancer management.
From the *Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; †Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY; and ‡Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre; and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Received for publication March 19, 2015; and accepted for publication, after revision, March 23, 2015.
Sources of funding: TWJ Scheenen has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement no. .
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Correspondence to: Tom W. J. Scheenen, PhD, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 10, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E-mail: Tom.Scheenen@radboudumc.nl.