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Internal Derangements of Joints—Past, Present, and Future

Sutter, Reto MD*†; Stoel, Berend C. PhD; Buck, Florian M. MD*†; Andreisek, Gustav MD, MBA†§; Morelli, John N. MD; Hodler, Jürg MD, MBA†§; Li, Xiaoming MD, PhD; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. MD, MBA*†

doi: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000162
Review Articles

The past 50 years have transformed imaging of the joints. Whereas musculoskeletal imaging consisted predominantly of conventional radiography when Investigative Radiology was founded as a journal, the arrival of new imaging modalities, and above all, the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging, resulted in a paradigm shift: In addition to visualizing osseous structures, now the detailed depiction of soft tissue structures became part of routine clinical imaging and had a major impact on understanding pathophysiology and patient treatment. This article analyzes the patterns of innovation that were essential for the transformation of musculoskeletal radiology. Furthermore, state-of- the-art joint imaging is described through 9 key concepts, including both cutting-edge clinical applications as well as topics at the forefront of musculoskeletal research. Eventually, emerging trends are outlined that will likely shape musculoskeletal radiology in the next decades.

From the *Department of Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist; †Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; ‡Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; §Department of Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; ∥Department of Radiology, St. John's Medical Center, Tulsa, OK; and ¶Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Received for publication February 28, 2015; and accepted for publication, after revision, March 17, 2015.

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence to: Reto Sutter, MD, Department of Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Forchstrasse 340, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland. E-mail:

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