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Inflection Points in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technology—35 Years of Collaborative Research and Development

Wood, Michael L. PhD, MBA*; Griswold, Mark A. PhD; Henkelman, Mark PhD; Hennig, Jürgen PhD§

doi: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000167
Review Articles
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The technology for clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced with remarkable speed and in such a manner reflecting the influence of 3 forces—collaboration between disciplines, collaboration between academia and industry, and the enabling of software applications by hardware. The forces are evident in the key developments from the past and emerging trends for the future highlighted in this review article. These developments are associated with MRI system attributes, such as wider, shorter, and stronger magnets; specialty magnets and hybrid devices; k space; and the notion that magnetic field gradients perform a Fourier transform on the spatial distribution of magnetization, phased-array coils and parallel imaging, the user interface, the wide range of contrast possible, and applications that exploit motion-induced phase shifts. An attempt is made to show connections between these developments and how the 3 forces mentioned previously will continue to shape the technology used so productively in clinical MRI.

From the *Office of Research & Innovation, North York General Hospital and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; †Departmentof Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; ‡Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and §Department of Radiology Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Received for publication February 6, 2015; and accepted for publication, after revision, March 30, 2015.

Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared.

Correspondence to: Michael L. Wood, PhD, MBA, Research & Innovation, North York General Hospital, 4001 Leslie St, Toronto, Ontario M2K 1E1, Canada. E-mail: Michael.Wood@nygh.on.ca.

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