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CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)–Volume-Interpolated Breath-Hold Examination (VIBE): A New Technique for Fast Time-Resolved Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging of the Abdomen With High Spatial Resolution

Michaely, Henrik J. MD*; Morelli, John N. MD; Budjan, Johannes MD*; Riffel, Philipp MD*; Nickel, Dominik PhD; Kroeker, Randall PhD§; Schoenberg, Stefan O. MD*; Attenberger, Ulrike I. MD*

doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e318289a70b
Original Articles

Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and image quality of a novel, highly accelerated T1-weighted sequence for time-resolved imaging of the abdomen during the first pass of contrast media transit using controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA) under sampling, view-sharing techniques, and Dixon water-fat separation (CAIPRINHA–Dixontime-resolved imaging with interleaved stochastic trajectories–volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination [CDT-VIBE]).

Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board–approved study, 47 patients (median age, 62 years; 25 men, 22 women) scanned on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance system (Skyra; Siemens) were included. The CDT-VIBE (repetition time/echo time1/echo time2, 4.1/1.33/2.56 milliseconds; acquisition time, 29 seconds) was used in place of the standard arterial phase acquisition and started 15 seconds after the injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA (Dotarem, Guerbet). Within 29 seconds, 14 high spatial resolution (1.2 × 1.2 × 3 mm3) 3-dimensional data sets were acquired and reconstructed using view sharing (temporal resolution, 2.1 seconds). The CDT-VIBE images were evaluated independently by 2 blinded, experienced radiologists with regard to image quality and the number of hepatic arterial–dominant phases present on an ordinal 5-point scale (5, excellent; 1, nondiagnostic). Added diagnostic information with CDT-VIBE relative to portal venous phase VIBE was assessed.

Results In all patients, CDT-VIBE measurements were successfully acquired. The image quality was diagnostic in 46 of the 47 patients. Both readers assessed the highest image quality present in the data sets with a median score of 4 (range, 3–5 for both readers; κ, 0.789) and the worst image quality with a median score of 3 (range, 1–4 for both readers; κ, 0.689). With a range between 1 and 8 (median, 5), hepatic arterial–dominant data sets (of the 14 acquired) were obtained in each case. There was an added diagnostic value with CDT-VIBE in 10 of the 47 patients (21%).

Conclusions The CDT-VIBE is a robust approach allowing, for the first time, dynamic imaging of the upper abdomen with high temporal resolution and preservation of high spatial resolution.

Supplemental digital content is available in the text.

From the *Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany; †Scott & White Memorial Hospital and Clinic and the Texas A&M University Health Sciences Center, Temple, TX; ‡Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany; and §Siemens Healthcare Sector, Winnipeg, Canada.

Received for publication October 17, 2012; and accepted for publication, after revision, January 20, 2013.

Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared.

Reprints: Henrik J. Michaely, MD, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1–3, 68167 Mannheim, Germany. E-mail:

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© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins