The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PKs), imaging properties, and safety of the liver-specific magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in subjects with various levels of hepatic impairment, renal impairment, or coexisting hepatic and renal impairment.
Materials and Methods:
In this single-center, open-label, parallel-group study, patients with varying degrees of renal and/or hepatic impairment were compared with healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and weight (control group). All subjects received a single intravenous bolus of Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist, Eovist, EOB-Primovist) 25 μmol/kg body weight. Samples of serum, urine, and feces were collected for PK analysis. MR imaging was performed before dosing and at preset times after dose administration to determine enhancement relative to predose signal intensity values. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events, laboratory values, vital signs, cardiac rhythm, oxygen saturation, and by physical examination findings.
Gd-EOB-DTPA was well tolerated by all subjects. Total clearance of Gd-EOB-DTPA did not significantly change in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment (Child–Pugh A and B), compared with the control group. Mean urinary excretion was increased and mean fecal excretion was decreased in patients with hepatic impairment. Renal excretion was increased to between 72% and 96% of the dose administered in patients with very high bilirubin levels (>3 mg/dL), compared with 48% in the control group. Total clearance of Gd-EOB-DTPA was significantly reduced to 140 ± 45 mL/min and terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) was slightly, but not significantly, increased to 2.6 ± 0.9 hours in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child–Pugh C), compared with the control group (209 ± 37 mL/min and 1.8 ± 0.2 hours, respectively). Liver MR signal enhancement (area under the curve of relative enhancement [%] over time) was similar in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment and in those in the control group, but was decreased by 38% in patients with severe hepatic impairment, compared with control. Peak liver enhancement, however, was still at a high level (118% ± 57%). PK and imaging parameters were not significantly affected in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance, 30–50 mL/min). In patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF), however, the PK profile of Gd-EOB-DTPA was significantly different, with an increased t1/2 (20.0 ± 7.0 hours vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 hours in the control group). During a 3-hour dialysis session that started 1 hour after administration of the intravenous dose, the serum levels in patients with ESRF declined by between 71% and 88% as a result of elimination by hemodialysis and parallel hepatobiliary excretion. This is comparable with the decline observed in healthy subjects (85%) during the 1- to 4-hour interval after injection.
The results of the present study show that in humans with moderate renal impairment and mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment, no relevant changes in PK parameters, such as total clearance and t1/2, develop as a result of increased renal excretion to compensate in the case of hepatic impairment (or increased hepatic elimination in the case of renal impairment). The t1/2 of Gd-EOB-DTPA was markedly altered only in patients with ESRF. The high MR signal enhancement profile, observed even in patients with severe hepatic impairment, indicates that there is no need to adjust the dose of Gd-EOB-DTPA.