To develop a circulation phantom with physiologic circulation parameters, including a pulmonary and a body circulation for the evaluation of intravascular contrast material (CM) application.
Materials and Methods:
The circulation phantom consists of a low-pressure venous system into which CM is injected, a pulmonary circulation, and high-pressure body circulation with an anthropometric aorta and coronary arteries. The phantom is driven by a pulsatile Harvard heart pump. Venous and arterial pressure were set to physiologic values with heart rate (60 beats/min), stroke volume (60 mL), and ratio of diastole to systole (60/40) also were within physiologic limits. CM with different iodine concentrations (300, 370, and 400 mg iodine/mL) were injected at a flow rate of 4 mL/s (iodine delivery rate: 1.2 g, 1.48 g, and 1.6 g iodine/s, respectively; total iodine load for all protocols: 36 g). Serial computed tomography scans at the level of the pulmonary artery, the ascending and the descending aorta replica were obtained. Dynamic pressure in the phantom and true injection system parameters (flow rate, injection pressure, and CM volume) was continuously monitored. Time-enhancement curves were calculated, and pulmonary and aortic peak time and enhancement were determined. Results were compared using nonparametric unpaired Wilcoxon tests.
The pressure in the phantom showed physiologic values for the low (mean pressure: 15 mm Hg) and high pressure part (125/75 mm Hg). Programmed injection values (flow rate, pressure, and volume) were reached for all injections. Using CM with 400 mg iodine/mL, the shortest pulmonary and aortic peak times and the highest pulmonary and aortic peak enhancement values were obtained compared with CM with 300 and 370 mg iodine/mL.
We developed a flow phantom with physiologic circulation parameters for measurement of contrast enhancement. The phantom is suitable for further evaluation of CM injection protocols for pulmonary and aortic enhancement.