Original ArticleQuantification of Roughness of Calcific Deposits in Computed Tomography Scans of Human Coronary ArteriesWilner, Wayne T. PhD*; Mazraeshahi, Reza M. MD*†; Aboshady, Ibrahim MD*‡; Bodmann, Bernhard G. PhD§; Papadakis, Manos PhD¶; Kouri, Donald PhD¶; Conyers, Jodie L. PhD*‡; Cherukuri, Paul PhD∥; Vela, Deborah MD*‡; Gladish, Gregory MD**; Gavish, Lilach MSc††; Cody, Dianna D. PhD**; Frazier, Lorraine DSN, MS, RN, NP‡; Lukovenkov, Serhiy MD*; Madjid, Mohammad MD*‡; Zarrabi, Alireza MD*‡; Ahmed, Amany MD*‡; Willerson, James T. MD*‡; Casscells, S Ward MD*‡; Gertz, S David MD, PhD*‡††Editor(s): Runge, Val M. MD Author Information From the *Texas Heart Institute, St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas; †Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York; ‡University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Texas; §Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario; ¶Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas; ∥Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas; **MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas HSC, Houston, Texas; and ††Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Received December 28, 2006, and accepted for publication, after revision, May 3, 2007. Supported in part by a grant from the Department of Defense, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), The Texas Heart Institute, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and grants from the Rachel and Barney Gottstein Research Fund and the Murray Koppelman Research Fund of the American Friends of the Hebrew University, and the Anna and Arnold Broniatovsky Research Fund of the Hebrew University. Reprints: S. David Gertz, MD, PhD, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Hebrew University—Hadassah Medical School, POB 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. E-mail: [email protected]. Investigative Radiology: November 2007 - Volume 42 - Issue 11 - p 771-776 doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e3180cc2041 Buy Metrics Abstract Objectives: The incidence of coronary artery disease has been shown to be greater in patients with calcific deposits than in those without. It has been suggested that the pattern of distribution of coronary calcific deposits within coronary arteries is of greater predictive value for acute coronary events than the overall quantity. Whether roughness of calcific deposits is a predictor of acute coronary events is not known. We derived and tested an algorithm, Voxel-Based Bosselation (VBB), for noninvasive quantification of roughness of calcific deposits in human coronary arteries imaged by computed tomography (CT). Methods and Results: VBB was tested on 213 coronary calcific deposits from electron beam CT scans of 27 patients. This algorithm evaluates the 3-dimensional connectedness of surface voxels of each deposit: smooth masses have low VBB and rough masses high VBB. The algorithm was calibrated with artificially generated phantoms as well as background noise mimicking calcific deposits and surrounding heart tissue. The VBB algorithm is applicable to calcific deposits of all scales and gradations. The VBB values of the deposits in this study did not correlate with deposit size further supporting its validity as a measurement of roughness. The VBB index corresponded directly with visual reconstruction using Phong-shaded algorithms. Conclusions: The VBB index, derived here, is a noninvasive method of quantifying the roughness of calcific deposits in CT scan data which can now be used in future clinical studies to determine possible correlations with increased plaque vulnerability and major acute coronary events. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.