Schoenberg SO, Londy FJ, Licato P, et al. Multiphase-multistep gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the abdominal aorta and runoff vessels. Invest Radiol 2001;36:283–291.
rationale and objectives.
To optimize three-dimensional gadolinium magnetic resonance angiography (3D-Gd-MRA) of the aorta and runoff vessels by addressing fundamentally different requirements for temporal and spatial resolution in a single semiautomated examination.
The technique was designed to obtain pure arterial-phase 3D-Gd-MR angiograms with adequate spatial resolution for each station while avoiding incomplete enhancement due to delayed filling vessels as well as venous overlay. During gadolinium-chelate infusion, a breath-held multiphase 3D-Gd-MRA scan was initiated in the aorta by automatic triggering, followed by automatic table movement. The acquisition was tailored to the vessels of interest by tilting of the 3D volumes. A spatial resolution of 1.7 × 1.2 × 0.8 mm in the calves was achieved by use of elliptical-centric k-space reordering. Signal-to-noise ratio was maximized with a 12-element peripheral vascular coil. Twelve patients with peripheral vascular disease were studied.
In cases of aortic occlusive disease (n = 2), dissections (n = 3), or aneurysms (n = 4), substantially delayed fill-in of reconstituted arteries, false lumens, or aneurysmal segments occurred, which was detected only on the later 3D-Gd-MRA phase. High-resolution arterial-phase scans in the calves were obtained, with only one case of substantial venous overlay. Correlation to digital subtraction angiography revealed excellent agreement of pathological findings.
Multiphase-multistep 3D-Gd-MRA reduces the limitations of standard 3D-Gd-MRA techniques with respect to anatomic coverage, spatial resolution, and nonuniform arterial vessel enhancement.