Original ArticlesClinical risk factors for post-stroke urinary incontinence during rehabilitationBizovičar, Natašaa,,b; Mali, Brigitaa; Goljar, NikaaAuthor Information aDepartment for Rehabilitation of Patients after Stroke, University Rehabilitation Institute, Republic of Slovenia bDepartment for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Received 30 March 2020 Accepted 27 May 2020 Correspondence to Nataša Bizovičar, MD, PhD, University Rehabilitation Institute, Republic of Slovenia, Linhartova 51, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, Tel: +386 1 4758 351; fax: +386 1 4372 070; e-mail: [email protected] International Journal of Rehabilitation Research: December 2020 - Volume 43 - Issue 4 - p 310-315 doi: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000424 Buy Metrics Abstract Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem after stroke. Risk factors for UI seem to be multifactorial. There is still controversy in which risk factors contribute to UI. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for UI in stroke patients during rehabilitation. Study investigated 150 participants after the first stroke consecutively admitted to a post-acute inpatient rehabilitation program. They were divided into continence and incontinence group according to continence status on rehabilitation admission. Data about sociodemographic factors, functional status, comorbidities, current medications, type and localisation of stroke were collected. Compared with the continence group, incontinent participants had significantly worse cognitive status and upper limb function (P ≤ 0.005), more common global aphasia, neglect, visual field defect, agitation/confusion and deficits in somatic sensation (P ≤ 0.014). There were no differences between the groups regarding comorbidities, but incontinent participants received a larger number of current medications (P = 0.020). Incontinent participants had stroke located more common in the right hemisphere, corticosubcortical region and in the total anterior circulation region (P ≤ 0.051). In the multivariate analysis, Brunnstrom recovery stages of the affected upper limb [odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 1.61 (1.27–2.03)], agitation/confusion [5.36 (1.74–16.54)], global aphasia [5.06 (1.40–18.26)] and faecal impaction [3.41 (1.15–10.09)] were independent risk factors for UI. Findings suggest that communicative and cognitive problems, affected upper limb function and faecal impaction are the most important clinical risk factors for UI after stroke. Knowledge of these risk factors may help in the management of UI during rehabilitation of stroke patients. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.