EMX2 (the human homologue of Drosophila empty spiracles gene 2) is a candidate tumor suppressor. However, its roles in endometrial cancer are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated EMX2 expression in different subtypes of endometrial cancer and its relationships with clinicopathologic characteristics. By immunohistochemical staining, we investigated the level of EMX2 protein in 122 endometrial cancer and 25 normal endometrium tissues. Correlations between EMX2 expression and clinicopathologic features of patients were analyzed using a statistical software. Compared with the normal endometrium, the expression of EMX2 was significantly downregulated in endometrial cancer tissues (P<0.001). Reduced EMX2 expression was correlated with the tumor stage (P=0.023), grade (P=0.016), and the depth of myometrial invasion (P=0.04), but not with age, pathologic subtype, lymph node metastasis, lymph vascular space invasion, or ER/PR/p53 status. Downregulation of EMX2 was associated with tumor progression and may be a critical factor in the carcinogenesis and progression of endometrial cancer, which provided a novel therapeutic target and a potential marker for prognostic prediction.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.Q., Q.Y., W.B., X.W.), International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute
Central Lab (X.L.), International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute
Department of Pathology (H.Z.), International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
H.Q. and Q.Y. contributed equally.
Supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to Xiaoping Wan (No. 30872760 and 81072139) and Doctor Innovation Fund of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine to Haifeng Qiu (No. BXJ 201240).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Xiaoping Wan, MD, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 910, Hengshan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.