We report two cases of endometrial microglandular adenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm, which, in its morphologic features, mimics cervical microglandular hyperplasia and mucinous proliferations of endometrium. The criteria for a correct pathological diagnosis, such as clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical data, are emphasized. For the first time, we probed to establish whether endometrial mucinous microglandular adenocarcinoma could be correlated to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection by using polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) of tumoral DNA. Similar to previous studies reported in the literature, the present lesions, occurring in postmenopausal women, immunohistochemically showed positivity for B72.3, Ca 125, CEA, Vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and negativity for p53. Molecular study by PCR amplification of tumor DNA showed no signal for HPV DNA in any of these cases; thus, this variant of endometrial carcinoma is not caused by the HPV infection, but probably by other pathogenetic mechanisms, such as an accumulation of the mutations, which arrive in old age or as the consequence of a peculiar hormonal situation.