ORIGINAL ARTICLESEffects of venlafaxine extended release on resilience in posttraumatic stress disorder: an item analysis of the Connor–Davidson Resilience ScaleDavidson, Jonathana; Baldwin, David S.d; Stein, Dan J.e; Pedersen, Ronb; Ahmed, Saeedb; Musgnung, Jeffb; Benattia, Ismab; Rothbaum, Barbara O.cAuthor Information aDuke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina bWyeth Research, Collegeville, Pennsylvania cEmory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA dClinical Neuroscience Division, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK eUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Correspondence to Jonathan Davidson, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Trent Drive, 4th floor, Room 4082B, Durham, NC 27710, USA Tel: +919 684 2880; fax: +919 684 8866; e-mail: [email protected] Received 5 November 2007 Accepted 10 June 2008 International Clinical Psychopharmacology: September 2008 - Volume 23 - Issue 5 - p 299-303 doi: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e32830c202d Buy Metrics Abstract The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of venlafaxine extended release (ER) on characteristics of resilience, measured by the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were evaluated from a randomized, 6-month, international, multicenter study of adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition PTSD for ≥6 months, and 17-item Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score ≥60. Patients were assigned randomly to treatment with flexible-dose venlafaxine ER (37.5–300 mg/day) or placebo. Changes from baseline scores and effect sizes of response to treatment with venlafaxine ER compared with placebo were computed for each item, as well as for the newly developed 2-item and 10-item subscales. Effect sizes across items ranged from 0.41 (moderate) to 0.08 (very weak). The effect size for the Resilience Scale-2 (2-item subscale) was 0.32, which was comparable to the effect sizes of 0.35 for the 25-item full scale and 0.34 for the 10-item subscale. Venlafaxine ER improved resilience on individual Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale items that reflect four factors (hardiness, persistence/tenacity, social support, and faith in a benevolent or meaningful world), to varying degrees in patients with PTSD. The findings suggest that assessment of treatment response might be enhanced by routine evaluation of resilience. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.