ORIGINAL ARTICLESTwo-year effectiveness of risperidone and aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of patients with recent-onset or chronic schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders a retrospective multicenter studyYoshimura, Yusakua,c; Takeda, Toshihikoa; Kishi, Yoshikib; Harada, Toshikid; Nomura, Akirae; Washida, Kenjia,c; Yoshimura, Buntab; Sato, Kojirob; Yada, Yujib; Aoki, Shozoc Author Information aDepartment of Psychiatry, Zikei Hospital/Zikei Institute of Psychiatry bDepartment of Psychiatry, Okayama Psychiatric Medical Center, Okayama cDepartment of Psychiatry, Kawasaki Medical Graduate School, Kurashiki dDepartment of Psychiatry, Taiyo Hills Hospital, Takahashi eDepartment of Psychiatry, Momonosato Hospital, Kasaoka, Japan Correspondence to Yusaku Yoshimura, MSc, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Zikei Hospital/Zikei Institute of Psychiatry, 100-2 Urayasu-honmachi, Minami-ku, Okayama 702-8508, Japan Tel: +81 862 621 191; fax: +81 862 624 448; e-mail: [email protected] Received October 3, 2017 Accepted December 21, 2017 International Clinical Psychopharmacology: May 2018 - Volume 33 - Issue 3 - p 147-154 doi: 10.1097/YIC.0000000000000209 Buy Metrics Abstract This study aimed to assess the comparative effectiveness of risperidone (RIS) versus aripiprazole (ARP) in patients with recent-onset or chronic schizophrenia during maintenance treatment and to examine the interaction between illness duration and the effectiveness of the treatment. All adult patients with schizophrenia and related disorders discharged from four psychiatric hospitals between 2006 and 2012 were screened and the 2-year continuation rates of monotherapy using RIS or ARP after discharge were examined retrospectively. The treatment continuation of the two drugs in patients with recent-onset (illness duration <5 years) or chronic schizophrenia (illness duration ≥5 years) and the moderator effect of illness duration on the effectiveness of the treatment were analyzed. Of 328 patients, 233 received RIS and 95 received ARP. No significant difference was found between the two drugs in the treatment continuation for the entire sample. However, there was a significant difference favoring ARP in the recent-onset subgroup mainly because of differences in tolerability, whereas RIS tended to present better outcomes in patients with chronic illness. Furthermore, there was a significant variation in the effectiveness of the treatment between recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia. Our results suggest that illness duration is an important moderator in terms of the long-term effectiveness of the two drugs. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.