Epilepsy is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). Antiepileptic medications, such as valproic acid (VPA), were associated with changes in BMI, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia. This study aimed to investigate how epilepsy and antiepileptic treatments affect BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and total cholesterol of individuals with ASD or ID. Data on epilepsy diagnoses, treatment with VPA, carbamazepine or other antiepileptics, BMI, FBG, and total cholesterol levels were obtained from the medical charts of 80 adults with ASD and 77 adults with ID and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Participants with epilepsy had lower BMI and FBG than participants without epilepsy (BMI: 23.18±5.43 vs. 25.61±5.74 kg/m2, respectively, F=6.64, d.f.=1.140; P=0.011, FBG: 72.53±11.26 vs. 79.98±14.64 mg/dl, respectively, F=10.46, d.f.=1.135 P=0.002). Those treated with VPA had lower total cholesterol levels compared with those untreated (156.56±26.13 vs. 172.42±33.82 mg/dl, respectively, F=7.44, d.f.=1.150; P=0.007), but did not differ in BMI and FBG. Individuals with ASD or ID, and epilepsy were leaner and had lower FBG than those without epilepsy. In addition, total cholesterol levels were lower in VPA-treated participants than in untreated ones, but BMI and FBG levels were similar.
aHealth Services, Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Jerusalem
bMaccabi Health Services, South District
cGeha Mental Health Center, Petah Tikva and Department of Psychiatry, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University
dLaboratory of Biological Psychiatry, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
* Lilach Moses and Nachum Katz contributed equally to the writing of this article.
Correspondence to Lilach Moses, MSc, Moshav Nir-Hen 4, Postal Code 7933000, Israel Tel: +972 52 3774206; fax: +972 153 8 6848854; e-mail: email@example.com
Received April 6, 2015
Accepted June 15, 2015