Review ArticlesListeria Rhomboencephalitis in an Immunocompetent Host Treatment With Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Ampicillin: A Case Report and Review of Treatment OptionsStavropoulos, Christine MD∗; Tolentino, Bryan MD∗; Woods, Krystina MD∗; Pyburn, Dewitt MD†; Patterson, Shana MD†; Jean, Raymonde MD‡Author Information From the ∗Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine †Department of Neurology ‡Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Morningside–West, New York, NY. Correspondence to: Christine Stavropoulos, MD, Mount Sinai St. Luke’s Department of Medicine S&R 13, 1111 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10025. E-mail: [email protected]. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: July 2021 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p e204-e207 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000001024 Buy Metrics Abstract A 42-year-old healthy woman presented with fever and photophobia with rapid progression to diplopia, dysphonia, and tongue deviation. The cerebral spinal fluid had pleocytosis, but cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures were negative. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Brain imaging was consistent with rhomboencephalitis. She was successfully treated with a combination of ampicillin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. We present this case to highlight the syndrome of listeria rhomboencephalitis and the evolving treatment options. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.