Case ReportsPulmonary Nocardiosis and Cryptococcosis Co-Infection in First Diagnosis of HIV Infection A Case ReportUngthammakhun, Chutchawan MD∗; Nasomsong, Worapong MD∗; Chueansuwan, Worawong MD∗; Traipattanakul, Junthima MD∗; Changpradub, Dhitiwat MD∗; Wongchansom, Kittisak MD†Author Information From the ∗Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital †Department of Pathology, Army Institute of Pathology, Bangkok, Thailand. Correspondence to: Dhitiwat Changpradub, MD, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital, 315 Ratchawithi Rd, Bangkok 10400 Thailand. E-mail: [email protected]. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. The case report ethics approval was not applicable. Informed consent was obtained from the participants for the publication of case report. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: March 2021 - Volume 29 - Issue 2 - p e118-e120 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000934 Buy Metrics Abstract Pulmonary infections among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be caused by more than 1 organism. Pulmonary nocardiosis co-infection with cryptococcosis among patients with AIDS was extremely rare and has never been reported. Here, we report a case of pulmonary co-infection with nocardiosis and cryptococcosis in a 54-year-old HIV-positive man presenting productive cough and constitutional symptoms. Bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy culture were positive for Nocardia species and Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was treated with cotrimoxazole plus ceftriaxone for Nocardia species and fluconazole for C. neoformans. Etiology of pulmonary infections among patients with AIDS may be caused by multiple organisms. Among patients with AIDS having chest radiographic abnormality, an aggressive diagnostic approach should be warranted to accurately diagnose and appropriately manage. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.