Invited Review ArticleProsthetic Valve Endocarditis Diagnosed Because of Persistent Hemolytic Anemia After Salmonella Iliopsoas Abscess Treatment A Case Report and Literature ReviewKitazawa, Takatoshi MD, PhD; Yamamoto, Ai MD; Nakayama, Shin MD; Misu, Keita MD; Wakabayashi, Yoshitaka MD, PhD; Yoshino, Yusuke MD, PhDAuthor Information From the Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan. Correspondence to: Takatoshi Kitazawa, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan. E-mail: [email protected]. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: November 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 318-323 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000943 Buy Metrics Abstract Extraintestinal salmonellosis including infective endocarditis can cause serious complications. We present a case of prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis diagnosed because of hemolytic anemia after treatment of iliopsoas abscess and bacteremia caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. We also present a review of nontyphoidal Salmonella endocarditis. Prosthetic valve endocarditis cases had similar prognosis to native valve endocarditis cases, but they required surgery frequently. In a case of Salmonella bacteremia with prosthetic valves, infective endocarditis should be ruled out. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.