Review ArticlesHaemophilus Species, a Rare Cause of Vertebral Osteomyelitis Case Report and Review of the LiteratureBrooks, Daniel R. BA; Zhou, Shiwei MD; Kauffman, Carol A. MDAuthor Information From the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI. Correspondence to: Carol A. Kauffman, MD, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: July 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p 191-195 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000847 Buy Metrics Abstract Vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to Haemophilus species is rare. We report a case of Haemophilus parainfluenzae vertebral osteomyelitis and review the English-language literature for cases of H. parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae vertebral osteomyelitis. Fourteen previously reported cases are described alongside our case. The median age was 66 years. Twelve patients (80%) had infection involving the lumbar/sacral vertebrae. Nine (60%) had a possible predisposing factor, including prior respiratory infections and procedures involving mucosal surfaces. Only 4 patients were febrile, and another 4 had symptoms suggesting cord compression. The diagnosis was established by growth of the organism in samples obtained by percutaneous aspiration/biopsy of involved vertebrae in all but 1 patient. Haemophilus parainfluenzae was associated with a faster clinical progression than H. influenzae. Antibiotics alone were curative in 11 of the 15 patients; 4 also underwent a surgical procedure. Three of 5 patients with H. parainfluenzae infection required surgery. The infection was cured in all patients, including 1 patient who had a relapse after the initial course of antibiotics; only 1 patient had residual neurological symptoms of finger numbness. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.