Case ReportsClinical and Microbiological Diagnosis of Nonprimary Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnancy With Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus InfectionRomán-Soto, Sergio MD; Romero-Gómez, María Pilar MD; Montero-Vega, María Dolores MD; Cendejas-Bueno, Emilio PhDAuthor Information From the Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain. Correspondence to: Sergio Román-Soto, MD, Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: email@example.com. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Online date: December 5, 2019 Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: March 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 2 - p 94-95 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000806 Buy Metrics AbstractIn Brief Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of congenital infection in developed countries. It is thought that symptomatic congenital CMV (cCMV) infections are produced by a primary CMV infection in the majority of the cases, but recent case series published show a similar prevalence and severity of clinical findings and long-term sequels in nonprimary and primary cCMV infection. We report a case of nonprimary CMV infection in pregnancy with fetal neurological alterations. A positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction in amniotic fluid (AF) confirmed the diagnosis of cCMV infection that triggered a voluntary termination of pregnancy. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays of AF are used to confirm a fetal cCMV infection, and the invasive amniocentesis procedure is justified when abnormalities are found in ultrasound control, although they are not validated to use in AF. Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital infection. It is thought that a seropositive-cytomegalovirus status protects against a symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection, but recent studies show a similar prevalence in non-primary and primary cytomegalovirus infection. The authors report a case of non-primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy with fetal alterations and a positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in amniotic f luid. Quantitative PCR-assays are used for confirming fetal congenital cytomegalovirus infection, although they are not validated in amniotic fluid. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.