Case ReportsNeuroinvasive Seronegative West Nile Virus in the Setting of R-CHOP Chemotherapy for Diffuse Large B-Cell LymphomaYuen, Alexander D. BA, BS; Liu, Jason Y. MD; Betancourt, Jaime MDAuthor Information From the Department of Medicine, UCLA/VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. Correspondence to: Alexander D. Yuen, BA, BS, Department of Medicine, UCLA/VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 11301 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90073. E-mail: email@example.com. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: November 2018 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - p e85-e87 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000667 Buy Metrics AbstractIn Brief West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that can produce potentially life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. In 2017, there were 536 human cases of WNV in California, with 43 fatalities reported to the California Department of Public Health. Peak mosquito transmission periods are in the late summer and early fall when mosquitoes are maximally viremic. In addition to risk factors such as advanced age, malignancy, or prior organ transplantation, the probability of progression to severe, neuroinvasive disease has been reported to be significantly higher in individuals suffering from lymphoma receiving rituximab in addition to other oncologic treatments. Here, we describe the case of a patient who recently received chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine, and prednisone for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, complicated by meningoencephalitis due to seronegative neuroinvasive WNV infection, ultimately resulting in death. West Nile virus is an arbovirus that can cause potentially fatal meningoencephalitis. Peak transmission periods in California occur in August and September. Limited therapeutic options are available for treatment outside of supportive care, especially in the setting of immunosuppression. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.