Case ReportsPneumocystis Pneumonia and Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome A Rare Co-occurrenceOlanipekun, Titilope MD, MPH*†; Effoe, Valery S. MD, MS*†; Medhane, Kimberly A. MD*†; Fransua, Mesfin MD*†Author Information From the *Division of Infectious Disease, Department of General Internal Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine; †Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, GA. Correspondence to: Titilope Olanipekun, MD, MPH, Internal Medicine Residency Program, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Dr SW, Atlanta, GA 30310. E-mail: email@example.com. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: September 2018 - Volume 26 - Issue 5 - p 294-296 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000580 Buy Metrics AbstractIn Brief Severe immunosuppression and the presence of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are strongly associated with incidence of venous thromboembolism especially deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). The co-occurrence of 2 diseases with similar clinical presentation can pose diagnostic and treatment challenges. We describe the case of a 54-year-old male, with no significant past medical history who presented with complaints of a 6-week history of shortness of breath. He was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4 count of 121 cells/μL and severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After 5 days of treatment without significant improvement, we obtained a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram, which showed concurrent acute PE. His clinical condition improved with anticoagulation therapy. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion and consider PE in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea and hypoxemia, particularly when P. jirovecii pneumonia infection or other acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses are suspected. Patients with AIDS are predisposed to pulmonary embolism (PE). The clinical situation can be confusing when a patient has both PE and an opportunistic pulmonary infection such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), due to their similarities in presentation. This case emphasizes the need for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion and consider PE in the differential diagnoses of dyspnea and hypoxemia, particularly when PJP infection or other AIDS-defining illnesses are suspected. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.