Review ArticlesLiver Abscess in Patients With Leukemia and Prolonged NeutropeniaGrabau, Michael*; Pandya, Shuchi MD†; Nanjappa, Sowmya MD‡; Shenoy, Rahul MBBS§; Aslam, Sadaf MD, MS∥; Greene, John N. MD, FACP¶Author Information From the *University of South Florida; †University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine; ‡Departments of Internal Medicine and Oncologic Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine; §H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida; ∥Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine; and ¶Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL. Correspondence to: John N. Greene, MD, FACP, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr, FOB-3, Tampa, FL 33612-9497. E-mail: [email protected]. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.infectdis.com). Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: July 2017 - Volume 25 - Issue 4 - p 193-198 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000478 Buy SDC Metrics AbstractIn Brief Patients with leukemia are at a high risk of developing disseminated invasive fungal and/or bacterial infections due to prolonged neutropenia, which is usually caused by myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Disseminated fungal infections in the setting of prolonged neutropenia result in high mortality. The most effective means to improve patient outcome is early diagnosis and treatment when preventive measures have failed. The most common fungal pathogens are Candida spp and Aspergillus spp. Rare causes of such infection are by Mucor and Entomopthorales spp, Fusarium spp, and Scedosporium spp, each having unique epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options. We present a case of disseminated hepatic, pulmonary, bowel, and appendix mucormycosis successfully treated with antifungal therapy and without surgical intervention. We also review the literature regarding hepatic abscesses and disseminated invasive fungal infections along with current treatment strategies for Mucor infections. The clinical symptoms of both fungal and bacterial dissemination are very similar. In the setting of prolonged neutropenia, abscesses in the liver and other organs are more likely to be of fungal origin. Certain fungi have unique patterns and characteristics that can help with radiological identifi cation. Fungal pathogens have the propensity to exhibit angioinvasion, causing tissue necrosis rather than pus, as seen with bacterial abscesses. Early diagnosis and preemptive antifungal therapy is crucial for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.