Case ReportRothia mucilaginosa Bacteremia and Subsequent Typhlitis in a Patient With Acute Myeloid LeukemiaBassily, Emmanuel MD*; Verma, Sean MD*; Nanjappa, Sowmya MD†; Bassily, Olivia BS‡; Greene, John MD§Author Information From the *Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa; †Department of Internal and Hospital Medicine, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa; ‡College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville; and §Department of Infectious Diseases, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL. Correspondence to: John Greene, MD, Department of Infectious Diseases, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr, FOB-3, Tampa, FL 33612-9497. E-mail: [email protected]. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: January 2017 - Volume 25 - Issue 1 - p e1-e3 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000458 Buy Metrics Abstract Rothia mucilaginosa is a gram-positive coccobacilli that is part of the normal flora of the human oropharynx and upper respiratory tract. Rothia spp. cause a wide range of serious infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a 54-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia, who recently had gingivitis and tooth extraction in preparation for bone marrow transplant evaluation. After receiving induction chemotherapy with cladribine, cytarabine, filgrastim, and mitoxantrone, he developed an upper gingival ulceration and subsequent Rothia mucilaginosa bacteremia on day 15 of hospitalization. He remained neutropenic on broad-spectrum antimicrobials and had intermittent breakthrough fevers. On day 17, he developed abdominal pain and was subsequently diagnosed with neutropenic enterocolitis. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotics, he died with sepsis and multiorgan failure. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.